Purposive Sampling Adalah Pdf



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(PDF) Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling

2 Ilker Etikan et al.: Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling.

include every subject because the population is almost finite.

This is the rationale behind using sampling techniques like

convenience sampling by most researchers [5].

Convenience sampling (also known as Haphazard Sampling

or Accidental Sampling) is a type of nonprobability or

nonrandom sampling where members of the target population

that meet certain practical criteria, such as easy accessibility,

geographical proximity, availability at a given time, or the

willingness to participate are included for the purpose of the

study [4]. It is also referred to the researching subjects of the

population that are easily accessible to the researcher [18].

Convenience samples are sometimes regarded as ‘accidental

samples’ because elements may be selected in the sample

simply as they just happen to be situated, spatially or

administratively, near to where the researcher is conducting the

data collection. Ecological data are often taken using

convenience sampling, here data are collected along roads,

trails or utility corridors and hence are not representative of

population of interest. Other example of convenience sampling

include data taken subjectively near camp, around parking

areas, or an areas where density is known to be high. Biologist

often use convenience sampling in the field work because it is

easier like walking on a road and stop occasionally to record

numbers. With numbers derive from convenience sampling,

one can make only weak statement about some characteristic

of the sample itself rather than a formal inductive inference

concerning the population of interest. Further explains that,

“captive participants such as students in the researcher’s own

institution are main examples of convenience sampling” [4].

Convenience Sampling is affordable, easy and the subjects

are readily available. It is compulsory for the researcher to

describe how the sample would differ from the one that was

randomly selected. It is also necessary to describe the subjects

who might be excluded during the selection process or the

subjects who are overrepresented in the sample [5]. The main

objective of convenience sampling is to collect information

from participants who are easily accessible to the researcher

like recruiting providers attending a staff meeting for study

participation. Although commonly used, it is neither

purposeful nor strategic [11]. The main assumption associated

with convenience sampling is that the members of the target

population are homogeneous. That is, that there would be no

difference in the research results obtained from a random

sample, a nearby sample, a co-operative sample, or a sample

gathered in some inaccessible part of the population [10].

Point out that the obvious disadvantage of convenience

sampling is that it is likely to be biased [13]. They advise

researchers that the convenience sampling should not be taken

to be representative of the population. Still, there is another

problem of great concern related to convenience sampling, i.e.

the problem of outliers. Because of the high self-selection

possibility in non-probability sampling, the effect of outliers

can be more devastating in this kind of subject selection.

Outliers are cases whom consider as not belonging to the data.

In a convenience sample, on the contrary, neither biases nor

their probabilities are quantified [7]. In fact, the researcher

does not know how well a convenience sample will represent

the population regarding the traits or mechanism under

research. What makes convenience samples so unpredictable is

their vulnerability to severe hidden biases [12].

2.1. Benchmark Problem

A psychologist is interested in the impacts of social

network on study habits of Nigerian university students. To

test the whole population, the researcher would need all

current university students and hence, a lot of time, energy

and resources.

A sample would be a selection of few students from all of

the Universities in Nigeria, which the researcher has to get

for the testing.

The convenience sample here would be a group of students

from Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, a Nigerian

University where the Psychologist is working as lecturer.

We learnt from the above that, the psychologist was

subjective as the only students of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

University, Bauchi were included in the study. With this

sample the researcher would utilize little time and resource.

The selected students in this study are different from other

Nigerian University students. Thus, this may undermine the

ability of the Psychologist to make generalisations from the

sample to the population.

Therefore, in convenience sampling, the individuals

selected by the researcher may not be applicable to the

research problem. Hence, there is a risk of collecting poor

quality data due to poor research outcomes and as such,

difficult to convince others to accept the findings of research

based on poor foundation [16]. Some methods literature

disregards convenience sampling as being an inappropriate

method in social research due to the severe limitations [12].

2.2. Purposive Sampling

Data gathering is crucial in research, as the data is meant to

contribute to a better understanding of a theoretical framework

[2]. It then becomes imperious that selecting the manner of

obtaining data and from whom the data will be acquired be

done with sound judgment, especially since no amount of

analysis can make up for improperly collected data [21]. The

purposive sampling technique, also called judgment sampling,

is the deliberate choice of a participant due to the qualities the

participant possesses. It is a nonrandom technique that does

not need underlying theories or a set number of participants.

Simply put, the researcher decides what needs to be known

and sets out to find people who can and are willing to provide

the information by virtue of knowledge or experience [2]. It is

typically used in qualitative research to identify and select the

information-rich cases for the most proper utilization of

available resources [17]. This involves identification and

selection of individuals or groups of individuals that are

proficient and well-informed with a phenomenon of interest

[3]. In addition to knowledge and experience, [2] and [19] note

the importance of availability and willingness to participate,

and the ability to communicate experiences and opinions in an

articulate, expressive, and reflective manner. Unlike random

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